The Secret of Synchronization

Birt 31 mar 2021
How does order spontaneously arise out of chaos? This video is sponsored by Kiwico - go to www.kiwico.com/Veritasium50 for 50% off your first month of any crate.
An enormous thanks to Prof. Steven Strogatz - this video would not have been possible without him. Much of the script-writing was inspired and informed by his wonderful book Sync, and his 2004 TED talk. He is a giant in this field, and has literally written the book on chaos, complexity, and synchronization. It was hard to find a paper in this field that Steven (or one of his students) didn't contribute to. His Podcast "The Joy of X" is wonderful - please listen and subscribe wherever you get your podcasts www.quantamagazine.org/tag/the-joy-of-x
Nicky Case's Amazing Firefly Interactive - ncase.me/fireflies
Great Kuramoto Model Interactive - www.complexity-explorables.org/explorables/ride-my-kuramotocycle
References:
Strogatz, S. H. (2012). Sync: How order emerges from chaos in the universe, nature, and daily life. Hachette UK. - ve42.co/Sync
Strogatz, S. H. (2000). From Kuramoto to Crawford: exploring the onset of synchronization in populations of coupled oscillators. Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, 143(1-4), 1-20. - ve42.co/Strogatz2000
Goldsztein, G. H., Nadeau, A. N., & Strogatz, S. H. (2021). Synchronization of clocks and metronomes: A perturbation analysis based on multiple timescales. Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science, 31(2), 023109. - ve42.co/Goldsztein
The Broughton Suspension Bridge and the Resonance Disaster - ve42.co/Broughton
Bennett, M., Schatz, M. F., Rockwood, H., & Wiesenfeld, K. (2002). Huygens's clocks. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 458(2019), 563-579. - ve42.co/Bennett2002
Pantaleone, J. (2002). Synchronization of metronomes. American Journal of Physics, 70(10), 992-1000. - ve42.co/Pantaleone2002
Kuramoto, Y. (1975). Self-entrainment of a population of coupled non-linear oscillators. In International symposium on mathematical problems in theoretical physics (pp. 420-422). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. -- ve42.co/Kuramoto1975
Great video by Minute Earth about Tidal Locking and the Moon - ve42.co/MinuteEarth
Strogatz, S. H., Abrams, D. M., McRobie, A., Eckhardt, B., & Ott, E. (2005). Crowd synchrony on the Millennium Bridge. Nature, 438(7064), 43-44. - ve42.co/Strogatz2005
Zhabotinsky, A. M. (2007). Belousov-zhabotinsky reaction. Scholarpedia, 2(9), 1435. - ve42.co/Zhabotinsky2007
Flavio H Fenton et al. (2008) Cardiac arrhythmia. Scholarpedia, 3(7):1665. - ve42.co/Cardiac
Cherry, E. M., & Fenton, F. H. (2008). Visualization of spiral and scroll waves in simulated and experimental cardiac tissue. New Journal of Physics, 10(12), 125016. - ve42.co/Cherry2008
Tyson, J. J. (1994). What everyone should know about the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. In Frontiers in mathematical biology (pp. 569-587). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. - ve42.co/Tyson1994
Winfree, A. T. (2001). The geometry of biological time (Vol. 12). Springer Science & Business Media. - ve42.co/Winfree2001
Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Mac Malkawi, Oleksii Leonov, Michael Schneider, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Lyvann Ferrusca, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal
Written by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev
Animation by Fabio Albertelli and Jakub Misiek
GFX and 3D animation by Jonny Hyman
Filmed by Derek Muller and Raquel Nuno
Edited by Derek Muller
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Thumbnail by Ignat Berbeci
More footage from NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio
100 metronome video from ischats.info/fun/o9ixpmKTnoCjY54/v-deo
Intro animation by Jorge Cham
Thanks for the BZ footage from SteinbockGroup: ischats.info/fun/ea2nYqSki3Wvn6o/v-deo and
NileRed ischats.info/fun/fK9snIellF1qp5A/v-deo
Animation of waves in the heart from The Virtual Heart/ EM Cherry/ FH Fenton - ve42.co/Cardiac and ve42.co/Cherry2008
Chemical materials and protocol provided by Mike Morris and the UCI Chemistry Outreach Program www.chem.uci.edu/~jsnowick/outreach/UCI_Outreach/index.html
Thanks to Alie Ward for title/thumbnail consultation
Thanks to Dr Juliette Becker and Dr James O'Donoghue for the planetary science help
Music from Jonny Hyman, Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com "Seaweed" "Deeper Than The Ocean" "Ripple Effect"
Music also from Artlist artlist.com "Children of Mystery"
Thumbnail by Ignat Berbeci

Ummæli

  • @Prof. Steven Strogatz and @Veritasium, I believe the reason why it is hard to figure out the properties of whole given the properties of parts is because, of the level of mental activity human mind can reach in normal state. Due to the limited amount of energy our body can process, it becomes very hard to understand the bigger picture, which is relative in different people's case.

  • Coupled oscillation via vibrational transference, got it.

  • Well I am not auto synchronised to my missus, maybe I am a freak of nature?

  • Chaos and Order are not different to Nature.... They are 2 sides of the same coin.

  • Finally, something to adequately explain Aphex Twin's video, windowlicker. Thank you for your service, good sir.

  • Actually at all you challenge the physics.

  • Super cool video thanks!

  • Obviously there is a God, unfortunately this fact is not obvious to many. Giving credit to "Nature" is naive and illogical.

  • This can apply to all life, I’ll give you an example I was at a concert and somebody started a fight and somebody else in the crowd got angry and they started a fight, at the end of the concert it turned into a riot and everyone was starting to fight. This theory applies to everyone and that GOD is real, And synchronization is the key to the multi-verse.

  • I notice this happening in a line of cars, with their turn signals on. They'll sync up for a while, then go out of phase again, creating interesting rhyrmic patterns. I am very easily entertained.

  • Very informative

  • Hey..babies in the nursery cry and dogs in a kennel bark out of sync...

  • So...if one clock stops..or..is out of time..how would anyone know the correct time? He should have had a third clock as a tie breaker..or..better yet..a fourth clock for confirmation🤣

  • Your opinion on nature being chaotic and disordered is a subjective point of view. These smaller chaotic occurrences are part of a bigger order.

  • This is interesting, because when a group of women get together, like in a roommate kinda situation, then tend to get their periods at the same time!

  • So everything has a frequency including us humans. Everything living and inanimate is effected by frequency, however living things have a higher frequency than inanimate objects, and some humans have a higher frequency than others.

  • that was 20 minutes.....? i thought it was 6 yo

  • Gravity 👈 morons🤓

  • 1 Hz seems worse than 2 Hz would be, but maybe I'm just not a civil engineer

  • “Entropy is the natural order of the universe.”

  • The man at the end sounded like David Bohm :)

  • yet another reason to realize God controls the entire universe.

  • Its same with my walk i literally Almost always walk the same speed in steps as the person Im walking with

  • Even more interesting is the oscillation in American politics...

  • Hehe penguins

  • Many years ago myth busters used a linear actuator on an old disused bridge, the movement was maybe 4 to 6 inches but after a while the resonance created a measurable sway within the bridge.

  • It was great to learn more about synchronization. It really helped me strengthening up my faith a little bit more. It reminded me of a God that puts order in chaos as Genesis 1-2 shows us. A God who holds all the wisdom and the secrets of cosmos (Job 38). A God who loves me and you with sacrificial love (John 3:16) and who will eventually put everything in place again (Revelation 22)

  • maybe fireflies were celebrating saying hip hip hurraaaaaaaaayyy

  • quartz

  • This is very interesting. Great video. But does this also applies to lights? What if we had blinking multiple blinking lights? Does this apply too?

  • Two pedantic notes from a retired electrical engineer: [1] The bridge sync is like any system that has a resonance (and there may be more than one resonant frequency in a system). Electrical engineers routines apply "white noise" (randomness) to a resonant system to determine its resonant frequency(s). [2] When two timing sources are "close" in frequency, then something called a "beat" frequency results from the difference between the two frequencies. For example, if one is 0.1% different from the other (i.e. "close"), then there should be one "beat" every 1000 cycles. If 0.01% apart, then 10000, etc. Now if that frequency is from something slow, like a metronome or pendulum, say 1/sec, then you would have to wait 10000 sec (about 2.8 hours) before they sync, but only "momentarily", before they start to drift away. Then there's the "anti-beat" when they're motions are synced oppositely, at half the time, but repeats at the same frequency of once/2.8 hr. Now that also assumes that these are perfect timing systems with no animalities to throw a stick into the spokes, otherwise, more chaos ensues. Now multiply that to say 50 metronomes. The math gets more sticky, like the complexities of the 2-body vs. 3-body (or more) celestial orbital equations. But then computers were made to simulate is stuff so we humans can stay (mostly) sane. And this shouldn't detract from any enjoyment of the simplicity of the world around us, just know that it's there and the engineers (mostly) know how to address any issues that come along (albeit, after the fact sometimes).

  • I appreciate over exaggerated examples, thank you

  • 14:12 Golden Ratio.

  • This universe and this life is not random, but meticulously designed by a higher thinker.

  • 1:56 "They aren't part of an army" That's what you think

  • 17:24 shouldn't it say swayed instead of suede in the subtitles? Fabulous video all the same...

  • The unstable base is the answer.

  • Thanks 👍

  • Wait is this why women living together get their periods around the same time?

  • All this is common sense

  • Is there a formula as to when does the sync happen? At least for something simple, like metronomes? Ah, this is some exciting stuff.

  • woop nilered

  • The big picture.

  • Esto significa que nosotros volveremos al sol? (Se volvera a juntar la tierra con el sol xd incluidos otros planetas del sistema)

  • Quality+Quantity=Veritasium

  • Hmm. There must be a God somewhere?

  • I always wondered why clapping would line up like that!! Omg. When I used to sit in chapel in high school (private Christian school) we would always end up clapping in sync. I would hear this and intentionally change my clapping, lol. I never knew this was almost a rule of nature

  • God.

  • OK Now, -- Now that my friends is how you start a morning with your cup,of tea!! - Had more of my school-age and muddle adult pedestrian observations answered in 5-minutes than any other source -ever. Yep, gonna be a good many days after this, probably decades and lifetime what's remainning after this one. . .thanks..*

  • God is amazing

  • Lightening bugs not fire flies

  • That is absolutely MIND BOGGLING سبحان الله

  • Veritasium, can we please agree there is no experimental proof for entropy. If entropy is proven wrong over and over experimentally, if planets form from stars and organic life cycles thru life and death, exchanging disordered matter to then reorder. If we can consume elements like minerals and via enzymes convert them in to living cells then entropy is NOT REAL. Just the same as medicine, dogma exists. Entropy I hear over and over to explain time flowing in one direction... you don't need entropy!

  • 21 minutes to explain this? You should be ashamed.

  • In Rotterdam a big bridge nearly collapsed when there was a dance parade and people where all jumping at the same time

  • 12th standard education i guess

  • Quality video!

  • Human was a Metronom too.

  • Reality is more fascinating than any theory. The magic attributed to the unanimated world is like a veil that prevents people to see its actual reality.And sometimes people becomes frustrated and even irritated when it is explained in simpler terms. The best example I know about it is when the great English poet Milton said Newton had removed the magic of the rainbow after Newton’s explanation of light.

  • 0:28 . GOD

  • 7:30 you can do better than that

  • 👍🏻

  • So we could eliminate traffic jams by using wobbly roads? I'm pretty sure those traffic jams are the only event ignoring the laws of physics.

  • Ethereum

  • So youre telling me that there will be a point of time that the entire people on earth will say the same thing or walk or jump the same?

  • 6:06 I can't be the only one seeing an army of marching swordsmen?

  • I'm surprised Huygens didn't intuit and anticipate or at least immediately understand the cause of this effect. Had he never seen how pendulums in different forms synchronize on a ship, or in a carriage, or even when you are just out walking and things hang off of you? Why would pendulums hanging from clocks be any different? O_o Maybe I'm a physics savant, who just never studied physics. Or maybe Huygens had an off day at work :P Edit: Seriously, how do people not immediately just see how this works? What causes the effect? I am starting to think I've wasted my youth in the wrong career. No need for fancy explanations. The more a pendulum moves on an angle to gravity, the more it pulls whatever it is tethered to out of place. Simple so far, right? One could delve into it, but I think most who have used a swing can intuit it. When a swing is at the top, it can pull the whole swing frame out of place. Okay... So when a swing is at the top, it transfers energy to the frame it is tethered to. The frame then shifts perpendicularly to the ground. The shifting frame will transfer energy to other pendulums attached to it. The more parallelly to the ground a pendulum is moving, the more of the energy that the beam transfers to it results in movement because the frame is moving completely parallelly to the ground. If the pendulum is moving at 45 degrees to the ground, half of the energy transferred to it will be directed towards the ground, and just result in friction. The other half will result in movement along the axis that the pendulum is moving. The frame transfers energy from pendulums moving perpendicularly to the ground to pendulums moving parallelly to the ground. The more perpendicular and parallel the motions are, the greater the effect. So energy is transferred until the pendulums are in sync. The pendulums don't even have to be influencing the frame they are attached to to sync up. It is enough that the frame is moving fairly rhythmically, like from wind or waves. Pretty sure that is by far the biggest factor for pendulums on ships, for instance. Huygens, you n00b.

  • And it relys on the fact they all are the same. If one was bigger or smaller it wouldn't work. There is a lesson here.

  • When you look att the the turn signal on two different cars when they have stopped due to a traffic light. These turn signals will also synchronise. How come?

  • That's not Huygens, that's Dave Mustaine.

  • I see turn signal lights on cars Synchronize randomly

  • The whole University has synchronicity. It has to do with the Rythm of The Spirit we are living in.

  • LMAO THIS WAS ON A STATE TEST! Thank you for making educational, yet interesting content! Pretty sure they used the same sources you did.

  • Nothing beats the ancient civilizations' innovation which last thousand years

  • Firefly populations in different locations around Tennessee, if memory serves, light up in waves.

  • The 2 clocks synchronize because it's love!

  • The videos are so satisfying to watch

  • We don’t really have to go back 350 years.

  • Humans. Don't get me started. As the herd of we primates fell into step, a perfectly reasonable way to move in a dense crowd -- Hello, army! -- they set up a dangerous resonance in the bridge structure, something the engineers had not anticipated. They should have studied human herds, amd the military, before drawing up the structure. During the American Civil War, and I imagine in all the wars of humanity whenever a pontoon bridge was laid over a body of water, the troops were instructed to break route step, and just shamble randomly over, like any crowd in a street. Resonance has long been noted for its destructive properties, (see earthquakes, wind and Galloping Gerty, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge failure) but I think, forgotten for its positive properties, both physical and mental. And for anyone who reads this and gets a redass about it, we are all primates, the alleged greatest of the great apes. Sometimes we act like that ... sometimes not so much. We contain both.

  • To answer 19:30; Almighty God's Word!

  • I am a scientists and this blows me away

  • So this is how we solve the "measuring unidirectional speed of light" problem? We use this principle to synchronize the clocks of the detectors

  • I went to a performance in Denmark once, and at the end people were applauding, each at their own pace but then they all went in sync and it was scary as

  • People who dislike this: n0, only chaos

  • Love that he puts sponsor stuff at the end of the video

  • Trying to remind ourselves of our cosmic existence, one day we will all meet again

  • 👍

  • ok metronomes on a wobbly surface and light bugs. And..... the whole universe. No just no

  • Inertial equilibrium.

  • This is probably how Nikola Tesla would wanted to get his Tesla towers in sync. Earth being the wooden bar.

  • In this age of high technology, physics still manages to mystify us. Nicola Tesla indeed was on to something when he cane up with the earthquake machine. 🕵

    • Lmao no he wasn’t. He was a nut job that liked to make grandiose claims and espouse doomsday nonsense. He was a pre-internet era version of clickbait.

  • I really liked this. But what I liked the most is that it took some simple and obvious things we take for granted, and offered some profound insight. Thank you.

  • This is how democracy was born. The majority wins. The minority must follow afterward

  • It is waves. Waves always equalize.

  • Part of this phenomenon has to be caused by the human mind though, right? Not everything is as synchronized as it appears, and we humans like finding patterns in things that don't really have patterns

  • It's because they're all part of the same single body that they eventually oscillate as a single body.

  • Brilliant, brilliant! And a quality video! Keep it up my man!

  • seeing veritasium's HD face after that bald guy with the bad webcam is kind of terrifying

  • Does increasing the number of metronomes increase the consistency of the timing?

  • Out of the way so amazed it's like a room full of girls when they start hanging out together they start synchronizing on their menstrual cycle that fun